Reference Library: All References

Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Normally, common periwinkles produce thicker shells in the presence of crab predators. This study found that they did not do so when living in acidified seawater for 15 days. The snails apparently compensated for their lack of defensive shell-building by moving more to avoid the crabs. In a ...

Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increase carbon dioxide

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When embryos of a common estuarine fish—the inland silverside—were exposed to high CO2 levels until one week after hatching, survival dropped by 74 percent and length by 18 percent. The eggs were more vulnerable to mortality than the post-hatch larvae. The CO2 conditions that were simulated in the study are ...

Early reproductive stages in the crustose coralline alga Phymatolithon lenormandii are strongly affected by mild acidification

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

In the early life stages of a coralline alga, mortality and growth abnormalities increased with small changes in pH. However, rate of growth remained similar, potentially by re-directing energy from other life processes. (Laboratory study)

Effects of ocean acidification on early life stages of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and mussel (Mytilus edulis)

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When larvae of blue mussels were kept in ocean acidification conditions predicted for 2100 (pH 7.6) there was no marked effect on fertilization, development, abnormalities, or feeding. However, although the mussel larvae were able to form shells, after two months of exposure they were 28 percent smaller than larvae raised ...

Extensive dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When scientists collected pteropods living in the Southern Ocean, where high levels of CO2 caused low availability of calcium carbonate in the water for building shells, they found that the pteropods' shells had severely dissolved. In the laboratory, pteropods incubated under similar CO2 conditions had equivalent levels of dissolution. ...

Effects of CO2- induced seawater acidification on the health of Mytilus edulis.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Blue mussels exposed to highly acidified seawater for sixty days were able to protect their body tissues involved in reproduction, digestion, and respiration. However, the physiological defenses take energy away from other life processes, meaning that long-term exposure to ocean acidification may result in reduced growth and health of blue ...

Elevated level of carbon dioxide affects metabolism and shell formation in oysters Crassostrea virginica

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Juvenile oysters living in acidified seawater had higher mortality rates and less growth of shell and soft-body tissues. They also had higher metabolic rates, likely because of the higher energy cost of maintaining their body chemistry. The high-CO2 conditions also reduced the hardness and fracture toughness of the shells. (Laboratory ...

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