Increased CO2 and temperature acted together to increase the growth of algal turfs, which produced twice as much biomass and covered four times as much space. Experimental removal of algal turfs led to greater establishment of young kelp. The findings suggest that ocean acidification and warming could potentially cause a loss of kelp forests and an increase in algal turf.
The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: Increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests
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