Calcification of the Arctic coralline red algae Lithothamnion glaciale in response to elevated CO2

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

The calcium carbonate skeleton of a coralline red alga was estimated to become highly vulnerable to dissolving at an aragonite saturation state between 1.1 and 0.9, which is projected to occur in some parts of the Arctic between 2030 and 2050 if carbon emissions follow "business as usual" scenarios. (Laboratory ...

Effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on physiological and mechanical properties of the starfish Asterias rubens

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

The common sea star (Asterias rubens) appeared to withstand the effects of reduced seawater pH, at least for short-term exposures of 15 to 27 days, with no significant changes in the strength of its tube feet or the RNA/DNA ratio of its tissues. (Laboratory study)

The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: Increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Increased CO2 and temperature acted together to increase the growth of algal turfs, which produced twice as much biomass and covered four times as much space. Experimental removal of algal turfs led to greater establishment of young kelp. The findings suggest that ocean acidification and warming could potentially cause a ...

Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hardshell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

For juvenile hard-shell clams, ocean acidification alone or in combination with low salinity reduced the hardness and fracture toughness of their shells. This may reduce protection against predators. Salinity should be taken into account when predicting the effects of ocean acidification on estuarine bivalves. (Laboratory study)

Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When juvenile oysters were exposed to ocean acidification and/or low salinity, they had greater mortality, less energy stored in their tissues, and loss of soft tissue indicating energy deficiency. Ocean acidification and low salinity also reduced the hardness and fracture resistance of their shells. (Laboratory study)

The growing human footprint on coastal and open-ocean biogeochemistry

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Climate change, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, excess nutrient inputs, and pollution in its many forms are fundamentally altering the chemistry of the ocean, often on a global scale and, in some cases, at rates greatly exceeding those in the historical and recent geological record. Major observed trends include a shift ...

Impact of exposure to elevated pCO2 on the physiology and behaviour of an important ecosystem engineer, the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

A species of burrowing shrimp was able to tolerate ocean acidification conditions (pH 7.64) for 35 days. At a lower pH of 7.35, individuals experienced extracellular acidosis, suggesting they had little or no buffering capacity, although there was no evidence of negative impacts on metabolism, osmotic regulation, shell mineralogy, growth, ...

Near future ocean acidification increases growth rate of the lecithotrophic larvae and juveniles of the sea star Crossaster papposus

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Common sunstar larvae and juveniles in ocean acidification conditions grew faster without apparent effects on survival or body structure. Unlike the larvae of some other sea star species that feed on plankton, larval common sunstars rely on nutrition provided in their egg. This difference in life history may enable some ...

Relationship between CO2-driven changes in extracellular acid-base balance and cellular immune response in two polar echinoderm species

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Green sea urchins were able to adjust their internal pH level within 5 days after being placed in ocean acidification conditions, but sea stars (Leptasterias polaris) were not. Internal pH did not appear to be related to immune response. (Laboratory study)

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