When quahogs and eastern oysters were exposed to a combination of warmer temperatures and ocean acidification for 15 weeks, shell hardness decreased in both species. By itself, ocean acidification had a small effect on the physiology and metabolism of both species, but it improved survival in oysters. (Laboratory study)
Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 levels on energy metabolism and biomineralization of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.
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