Unlike most marine invertebrates, the common slipper shell broods its embryos in capsules. This study found that the capsules do not protect the embryos from ocean acidification. When brooded under ocean acidification conditions, larvae had shells that were 6 percent shorter, and the percentage of larvae with abnormalities was 1.5- to 4-fold higher. (Laboratory study)
Does encapsulation protect embryos from the effects of ocean acidification? The example of Crepidula fornicata.
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